To some extent, our lives are determined by the choices we make. But to what extent are our choices real? This question underlies most human dilemmas.
Arjun’s doubt about whether it would be better to be killed than to fight and kill his enemies is the focus of The Gita which synthesizes Hindu philosophy. Here, God explains why Arjun must fight and He shows us that Arjun really does not have a choice.
Yet, human decisions though tethered are not fully predetermined. They depend upon our nature, our capacity to judge, our circumstances, our mood and upon the choices we made in the past. At the same time, our current actions and inactions affect our future as well as the futures of all who are touched by what we do or do not do. Thus, as much as our choices arise from our karma, they create it.
Fortunately, we are not always aware of the many big and little choices we make throughout our days. If we were fully aware of them, we would probably go crazy. Still, though fettered or made in haste, our decisions matter. So, we must do the best we can, heeding our consciences and the advice of those we respect.
See Chapter Six, Karma and Reincarnation in On Hinduism, by Irina Gajjar.
The accrual of karma can be likened to the accrual of profit and loss in the accounting f our lives.
Sanchita Karma is the sum total of the unresolved karma accumulated in past lives. This is the karma that we bring from our past existences into our present existence. It determines things like the qualities with which we are born and the families into which we are born as well as the time and place of our birth which establish astrological influences in our lives. Sanchita Karma continues to accrue in our current life since, once we have acted, our present actions become part of our past.
Sanchita Karma, or accumulated karma, is karma that we have not yet burned. Until it is exhausted, it continues to generate more karma and to cause ongoing birth and rebirth. Hindu teachers tell us that we can reduce the effect Sanchita Karma through various methods of self-purification.
We can follow one of the three paths to enlightening: performing good action (which means selfless action), seeking good knowledge (which means true knowledge), or worshipping God faithfully (which means sincere, consistent worship). Or we can attain a higher level of consciousness by practicing yoga and meditation or by faithfully performing sacrificial acts.
Read more from On Hinduism by Irina Gajjar at http://irinaspage.com/philosophy/on-hinduism/
Isn’t it wonderful that with all the destructive power we humans have acquired, we are still here on our planet alive and kicking?
Humankind seems to have a collective survival instinct. We move ahead, risk our own survival to annihilate our opposition and at the brink, we pull back.
Individually and collectively, we make friends and enemies. To some extent, our relationships are based on our need to expand our power, influence, and territory. But that is not always it. Feelings based on similarities and differences in our physical selves and in our ideologies play a part. Then again perhaps karma plays a part giving rise to jealousies and other emotions harbored from earlier existence.
Off and on we decide to progress toward peace, but peace does not truly prevail. It does not seem to be in our nature. However, mercy and kindness and helpfulness battle with aggression, meanness, and animosity so we hang in the there and even thrive. I doubt we will improve, but let’s hope we hang in there.
Read more from Irina Gajjar at www.irinaspage.com.
Because the Gita and other scriptures consider reincarnation a self-evident doctrine, they do not make arguments to support its truth. This is much the case with most of the doctrines that are a part of scared Vedic literature. However, philosophers and teachers have made many arguments in support of their perspectives or interpretations of both doctrine and scripture. They have taught that reincarnation explains many things.
It explains why some people suffer while others do not or why some children are born with exceptional talent. It accounts for memories and emotions that seem to come out of the blue and it accounts for reports of extraordinary experiences in other dimensions.
It accounts for thousands of near death experiences reported but those who went to other realms and returned to tell what they saw and heard. Rather than rejecting these reports because they go beyond what is strictly possible, Hinduism considers many of them truthful and valuable testimony.
Quote starts with “Because the Gita and other scriptures consider….” and ends with “many of them truthful and valuable testimony.”
See On Hinduism, by Irina Gajjar, Chapter Six, Karma and Reincarnation.
One man’s virtue is another man’s vice and vice versa. Virtue is defined in various dictionaries in multiple ways that imply values like morality, goodness and integrity. In Eastern religions merit equates to “punya” which is action that earns good karma.
Antonyms of virtue include words like vice and evil. Evil is also an antonym of merit as are words like demerit and deficiency. The opposite of “punya” is “pap” which means sin. Sin earns bad karma.
Although virtue and vice must be considered in context, the fact that people and schools of thought differ in their views of these values can create problems. Such divergent views are particularly harmful when some seek to impose their personal notions upon others.
We cannot go wrong if we apply our beliefs regarding good and evil to ourselves rather than to judgements about others. This is not to say that we cannot praise those who perform acts that uplift us all or to criticize those whose acts shock our conscience. It is also not to prevent societies from imposing norms upon its citizens. But in terms of personal values and conduct, we should use our conscience to govern ourselves and seek to persuade only those who care about what we think.
Read more from blogs from Irina Gajjar here.
The idea of dharma is a central belief of Hinduism. Its meaning cannot be easily described or translated. Like karma, it is a fundamental concept.
The essence of Dharma is duty, but it is more. It is a universal principle as well as a personal principle. Hindu scripture says:
Dharma is truth.
It is said that
one who speaks truth
and one who speaks dharma
Bhridaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.14
Dharma embraces family life, social life and spiritual life. It is the guideline known as Sanatana Dharma meaning Eternal Law or Eternal Order which actually defines Hinduism.
See On Hinduism by Irina Gajjar.
Different Hindus perceive the relationship between God and karma in different ways. Some go so far as to say that karma determines the future and God does not exist or matter at all. Some equate the divine force with karma or believe that God creates karma.
Yet other individuals and Hindu schools of thought, more conventionally, see God as the dispenser of karma, which He tempers with divine mercy. Whatever their particular viewpoint, Hindu philosophers and laymen generally agree with the notion that good behavior earns merit and improves their karma and that misfortune is the product of prior bad behavior. Even those who do not fully believe in karmic power, tend to consider the idea of karma a plausible guideline for ethical living.
From On Hinduism by Irina Gajjar, Chapter One, Hindus and Hinduism; also available for purchase on Amazon.
Hinduism takes karma for granted. It does not seek to make a justification for its validity, but rather bases its principles, beliefs and guidance on the ways in which karma operates. Thus the underpinning of karma is the view or reality that actions have consequences.
While discussions of karma focus mostly on individuals, we should consider that peoples and nations also have destinies determined by consequences of prior actions. Over millennia we have seen nations rise and fall and we now see nations and national values in turmoil. Thus we should consider our behaviors not only in terms of ourselves but also in terms of our politics. Our national and international karma decides questions as momentous as war and peace.
See “Karma and Reincarnation,” Chapter Six, of On Hinduism by Irina Gajjar.
Discombobulated means confusing. This word suggests that an idea has many pieces which do not seem to fit together very well. For example, Hindus love the elephant headed Lord Ganpati, believe that God is beyond depiction and at the same time worship numerous images of God. These beliefs joined in one world view may perplex some.
Similarly the interaction between the all powerful Divinity and Karma may raise questions in others’ minds.
How do you think the notions of an unfathomable God, of invoking blessings from a human figure with an elephant’s head, of worshipping multiple representations of God and believing in karma work together?
See On Hinduism by Irina Gajjar for my views on this and other questions.
We human beings have always wondered about whether the chicken preceded the egg or vice versa. More seriously we wonder about what came before the big bang. But some scientists think the universe did not come from anything but merely appeared where it had not been apparent before.
If this is the case, than the whole universe is an illusion [Maya] rather than a reality as stated in Chapter 7, (verses 12 and 13) of the Bhagavad Gita. This fits with God’s description of Himself as the only reality.
But we cannot confuse the universe or even God, who would be the Truth that exists transcending the appearance and disappearance of the universe with occurrences within the universe of dimensions. Those occurrences are manifestations of karma.